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Landscaping for wildlife can restore critically needed habitat and beautify your yard at the same time. Many excellent native trees, shrubs, and vines offer four seasons’ interest with their fragrant flowers, eye-catching fruit, brilliant fall color, and sculptural forms in winter. The same plants can attract a diversity of wildlife with the food, cover, and nest sites they supply.
Select plants that provide a year-round source of food.
Many woody plants produce soft mast (fruit) or hard mast (nuts) that provides food for both birds and mammals. When selecting plants, choose a combination that will supply food throughout the year. For example, blackberries and raspberries provide fruit in summer and are consumed by catbirds, chipmunks, rabbits, and other wildlife present in your yard at that time. Dogwoods, mountain ash, and spicebush produce fruit in late summer and early fall and are an important food source for fall migrants.
Make sure to include some plants that retain their fruit through winter into early spring, the time of greatest food scarcity. These plants generally produce fruit that is not highly preferred, so the fruit is not consumed during the fall when other foods are abundant. Examples are hawthorn, crabapple, holly, highbush cranberry, and staghorn sumac. They are excellent plants for wildlife because they offer emergency winter food, and some, such as sumac with its red fruiting spikes, can add structural interest to a bleak winter landscape. The table in this fact sheet lists the fruiting period for many trees, shrubs, and vines.